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Revenue & Growth

Showing 49-56 of 134 results

LTV and CAC: What Are They and Why Do They Matter?

by Ryan Downie

LTV:CAC analysis is one of the most important exercises startup founders must go through to evaluate their business’ prospects and raise external funding. It is, however, frequently misunderstood and misinterpreted. In this article, Toptal Finance Expert Ryan Downie runs through a practical tutorial of how to perform LTV:CAC analysis correctly, and how it should be adapted and interpreted depending on the business model or sector in question.

12 minute readContinue Reading

What’s My Return on Investment and How Do I Calculate It?

by David Bradshaw

Finding out your return on investment from a project can become a subjective process with the myriad of returns measures and formulas that exist. This overview provides a breakdown and explanation of what type of return you need to measure and how to calculate it. With further guidance on how to use returns data to guide objective decision making.

16 minute readContinue Reading

Biotech Valuation Idiosyncrasies and Best Practices

by Raphael Rottgen, CFA FRM

Biotech companies with little to no revenue can still be worth billions. Consider the most prominent 2017 biotech M&A deal when Gilead bought Kite Pharma for almost $12 billion. At the time of the deal, Kite had over $600 million in accumulated deficit, but it also had a pipeline of CAR-T cell therapies, which treat cancer. This article examines how to value such pipelines. It also focuses on the risk-adjusted NPV valuation methodology, portfolios of multiple drug candidates, and how value is impacted by the characteristics of the investor or acquirer.

22 minute readContinue Reading

For Founders Raising Capital: Thinking Through the Implications of Convertible Notes

by Jeffrey Briggs

Convertible notes have become an increasingly popular and common method for raising capital by startups, but how well do founders truly understand the implications of going down this route? In this article, Toptal Finance Expert Jeffrey Briggs outlines the basics of convertible note structures, and runs through the pros and cons of using them to raise money for new entrepreneurial ventures.

15 minute readContinue Reading

Real Estate Valuation Using Regression Analysis – A Tutorial

by Daniel Barr, CFA, CAIA

Traditional approaches to valuing real estate can lean towards the qualitative side, relying more on intuition over sound rationale. Linear regression analysis, however, can offer a robust model for using past transactions in an area, to provide better guidance on property valuations.

21 minute readContinue Reading

M&A Negotiation Tactics and Strategies: Tips from a Pro

by Javier Enrile

Mergers and acquisitions are headline-grabbing events that are often the pinnacle of a CEO’s career. But they also often fail to generate value, as numerous studies over the years have shown. With over 15 years of experience doing M&A deals, Toptal Finance Expert Javier Enrile shows that the main reason for disappointing results is simple: Most people think M&A is merely an exercise of agreeing on a price for the deal. What they fail to understand is that there is a science to doing M&A that often makes the difference between a deal being successful or not. In this article, Enrile runs through three key tactics for ensuring your company can get the most value out of an M&A transaction.

19 minute readContinue Reading

Do Economic Moats Still Matter?

by Alex Graham, CFA

Companies, like castles, need a line of defense to repel the invaders' advances. Economic moats, taking a cue from their watery namesakes, are long-term and sustainable competitive advantages that protect others from seizing market share. But on the flipside, are they actually just lazy, passive strategies that shun innovation?

14 minute readContinue Reading

Forecaster’s Toolbox: How to Perform Monte Carlo Simulations

by Stefan Thelin

One of the most important and challenging aspects of forecasting is handling the uncertainty inherent in examining the future. Every CEO, CFO, board member, investor, or investment committee member brings their own experience and approach to financial projections and uncertainty, influenced by different incentives. Oftentimes, comparing actual outcomes against projections underscores the need to explicitly recognize uncertainty. Monte Carlo simulations are an extremely effective tool for handling risks and probabilities, used for everything from constructing DCF valuations, valuing call options in M&A, and discussing risks with lenders to seeking financing and guiding the allocation of VC funding for startups. This article provides a step-by-step tutorial on using Monte Carlo simulations in practice.

22 minute readContinue Reading

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