Toptal is a marketplace for top CSS developers, engineers, programmers, coders, architects, and consultants. Top companies and start-ups choose Toptal CSS freelancers for their mission-critical software projects.
Phanindra combines deep back-end development expertise using Node.js with a range of skills from the front end with Vue and React to DevOps in AWS. This experience enables him to build scalable, secure, and fault-tolerant applications. With a passion for coding and strong attention to detail, Phanindra strives to exceed client expectations and deliver bug-free code.
Sean is a senior developer with a broad and versatile skillset who works heavily in React, React Native, and Node.js. He has an entrepreneurial spirit and a midwest work ethic and has worked with a large range of companies of different sizes and scopes. His strong theoretical and practical background in software architecture, UI design, DevOps, and business consulting makes him extremely capable of bringing success to projects of any size.
Radomir is a principal software engineer with a robust software architecture background and the ability to find simple solutions to complex problems. He is passionate about good practices, clean code, software architecture, Agile methodologies, and leading teams. You'll often find him acting, playing guitar, fishing, etc., and trying to convince people to use the Agile methodology in all those fields.
Giulia is a creative and detail-oriented freelancer with a passion for front-end development and UI/UX design. She has over six years of experience developing web applications for professional, academic, and personal projects. Giulia is a CSS enthusiast, and she is always learning new technologies. She is a good communicator and values empathy between co-workers.
Marcelo is a front-end developer with over a decade of experience building pixel-perfect websites. He's worked across desktop and mobile, developing web and mobile apps. Marcelo is also an expert at solving complex UI problems along the way and enjoys seeing his work in action.
Andrey is a senior full-stack web developer with over 12 years of experience. Specializing in building back-end APIs for web applications, Andrey thoroughly understands the requirements for solid builds and always strives to provide the best infrastructures to safely and quickly facilitate growth and scaling.
For over the past decade, Danilo has been working as a software developer creating web apps and software that can scale. At his current employment, he’s successfully occupied several roles such as full-stack developer, team lead, manager, back-end developer, and he’s now working on a team that is responsible for the development tools. Danilo champions best practices and helps developers to be more productive by providing reusable software.
Since 2016, Temur has been making a living as a senior full-stack developer building apps with the PHP framework, Laravel; this includes working as a senior back-end developer for companies Artel and Uzbekinvest. He’s also quite good at front-end development, especially with Vue.js, and has used those skills on behalf of IUTLab and Artel. Temur’s passionate about problem-solving and applying his in-depth knowledge of mathematics.
CSS has been in use for more than 20 years and has become an integral part of any front-end development. Therefore, there is no shortage of United States developers with CSS listed on their resumes. Locating CSS developers is fairly easy, but choosing the perfect one is that much more of a challenge. From e-commerce websites in Shopify and website design to application development projects, this guide offers a sampling of effective questions to help you identify the best CSS developers who are experts in their field.
... allows corporations to quickly assemble teams that have the right skills for specific projects.
Despite accelerating demand for coders, Toptal prides itself on almost Ivy League-level vetting.
Building a cross-platform app to be used worldwide
Tripcents wouldn't exist without Toptal. Toptal Projects enabled us to rapidly develop our foundation with a product manager, lead developer, and senior designer. In just over 60 days we went from concept to Alpha. The speed, knowledge, expertise, and flexibility is second to none. The Toptal team were as part of tripcents as any in-house team member of tripcents. They contributed and took ownership of the development just like everyone else. We will continue to use Toptal. As a start up, they are our secret weapon.
Brantley Pace, CEO & Co-Founder
I am more than pleased with our experience with Toptal. The professional I got to work with was on the phone with me within a couple of hours. I knew after discussing my project with him that he was the candidate I wanted. I hired him immediately and he wasted no time in getting to my project, even going the extra mile by adding some great design elements that enhanced our overall look.
Paul Fenley, Director
K Dunn & Associates
The developers I was paired with were incredible -- smart, driven, and responsive. It used to be hard to find quality engineers and consultants. Now it isn't.
Ryan Rockefeller, CEO
Toptal understood our project needs immediately. We were matched with an exceptional freelancer from Argentina who, from Day 1, immersed himself in our industry, blended seamlessly with our team, understood our vision, and produced top-notch results. Toptal makes connecting with superior developers and programmers very easy.
Jason Kulik, Co-Founder
As a small company with limited resources we can't afford to make expensive mistakes. Toptal provided us with an experienced programmer who was able to hit the ground running and begin contributing immediately. It has been a great experience and one we'd repeat again in a heartbeat.
Stuart Pocknee , Principal
Site Specific Software Solutions
We used Toptal to hire a developer with extensive Amazon Web Services experience. We interviewed four candidates, one of which turned out to be a great fit for our requirements. The process was quick and effective.
Abner Guzmán Rivera, CTO and Chief Scientist
Sergio was an awesome developer to work with. Top notch, responsive, and got the work done efficiently.
Dennis Baldwin, Chief Technologist and Co-Founder
Working with Marcin is a joy. He is competent, professional, flexible, and extremely quick to understand what is required and how to implement it.
André Fischer, CTO
We needed a expert engineer who could start on our project immediately. Simanas exceeded our expectations with his work. Not having to interview and chase down an expert developer was an excellent time-saver and made everyone feel more comfortable with our choice to switch platforms to utilize a more robust language. Toptal made the process easy and convenient. Toptal is now the first place we look for expert-level help.
Derek Minor, Senior VP of Web Development
Networld Media Group
Toptal's developers and architects have been both very professional and easy to work with. The solution they produced was fairly priced and top quality, reducing our time to launch. Thanks again, Toptal.
Jeremy Wessels, CEO
We had a great experience with Toptal. They paired us with the perfect developer for our application and made the process very easy. It was also easy to extend beyond the initial time frame, and we were able to keep the same contractor throughout our project. We definitely recommend Toptal for finding high quality talent quickly and seamlessly.
Ryan Morrissey, CTO
Applied Business Technologies, LLC
I'm incredibly impressed with Toptal. Our developer communicates with me every day, and is a very powerful coder. He's a true professional and his work is just excellent. 5 stars for Toptal.
Pietro Casoar, CEO
Ronin Play Pty Ltd
Working with Toptal has been a great experience. Prior to using them, I had spent quite some time interviewing other freelancers and wasn't finding what I needed. After engaging with Toptal, they matched me up with the perfect developer in a matter of days. The developer I'm working with not only delivers quality code, but he also makes suggestions on things that I hadn't thought of. It's clear to me that Amaury knows what he is doing. Highly recommended!
George Cheng, CEO
As a Toptal qualified front-end developer, I also run my own consulting practice. When clients come to me for help filling key roles on their team, Toptal is the only place I feel comfortable recommending. Toptal's entire candidate pool is the best of the best. Toptal is the best value for money I've found in nearly half a decade of professional online work.
Ethan Brooks, CTO
Langlotz Patent & Trademark Works, Inc.
In Higgle's early days, we needed the best-in-class developers, at affordable rates, in a timely fashion. Toptal delivered!
Lara Aldag, CEO
Toptal makes finding a candidate extremely easy and gives you peace-of-mind that they have the skills to deliver. I would definitely recommend their services to anyone looking for highly-skilled developers.
Michael Gluckman, Data Manager
Toptal’s ability to rapidly match our project with the best developers was just superb. The developers have become part of our team, and I’m amazed at the level of professional commitment each of them has demonstrated. For those looking to work remotely with the best engineers, look no further than Toptal.
Laurent Alis, Founder
Toptal makes finding qualified engineers a breeze. We needed an experienced ASP.NET MVC architect to guide the development of our start-up app, and Toptal had three great candidates for us in less than a week. After making our selection, the engineer was online immediately and hit the ground running. It was so much faster and easier than having to discover and vet candidates ourselves.
Jeff Kelly, Co-Founder
We needed some short-term work in Scala, and Toptal found us a great developer within 24 hours. This simply would not have been possible via any other platform.
Franco Arda, Co-Founder
Toptal offers a no-compromise solution to businesses undergoing rapid development and scale. Every engineer we've contracted through Toptal has quickly integrated into our team and held their work to the highest standard of quality while maintaining blazing development speed.
Greg Kimball, Co-Founder
How to Hire CSS Developers through Toptal
Talk to One of Our Industry Experts
A Toptal director of engineering will work with you to understand your goals, technical needs, and team dynamics.
Work With Hand-Selected Talent
Within days, we'll introduce you to the right CSS developer for your project. Average time to match is under 24 hours.
The Right Fit, Guaranteed
Work with your new CSS developer for a trial period (pay only if satisfied), ensuring they're the right fit before starting the engagement.
Find Experts With Related Skills
Access a vast pool of skilled developers in our talent network and hire the top 3% within just 48 hours.
At Toptal, we thoroughly screen our CSS developers to ensure we only match you with talent of the highest caliber. Of the more than 200,000 people who apply to join the Toptal network each year, fewer than 3% make the cut. You'll work with engineering experts (never generalized recruiters or HR reps) to understand your goals, technical needs, and team dynamics. The end result: expert vetted talent from our network, custom matched to fit your business needs. Start now.
Can I hire CSS developers in less than 48 hours through Toptal?
Depending on availability and how fast you can progress, you could start working with a CSS developer within 48 hours of signing up. Start now.
What is the no-risk trial period for Toptal CSS developers?
We make sure that each engagement between you and your CSS developer begins with a trial period of up to two weeks. This means that you have time to confirm the engagement will be successful. If you're completely satisfied with the results, we'll bill you for the time and continue the engagement for as long as you'd like. If you're not completely satisfied, you won't be billed. From there, we can either part ways, or we can provide you with another expert who may be a better fit and with whom we will begin a second, no-risk trial. Start now.
How to Hire a Great CSS Developer
Cascading Style Sheets, or CSS for short, is a style sheet language used to describe the presentation of a document written in HTML. The first version of CSS was proposed in late 1994. Over the next 20 years, CSS was upgraded 3 times, leaving us with current CSS version 3. Today, CSS is one of the core programming languages of the web and it is standardized by a W3C specification. Its development was very slow, which resulted with problems in adoption, and in the end web browser developers took things into their own hands. This resulted in many cross-browser compatibility issues and wasted web development hours. CSS3 in hand with HTML5 has become an integral part of any front-end/UI/UX development, and there is no shortage of developers with CSS listed on their resumes. This makes locating full-time or part-time CSS developers fairly easy, but makes choosing the perfect one that much more of a challenge. Many web developers will say they are also CSS developers, but as with any language or skill, there’s a difference between knowing CSS and being a CSS expert.
CSS3 in hand with HTML5 has become an integral part of any front-end development
That’s why hiring CSS developers can be difficult, and searching for a perfect one could be long and daunting task. It doesn’t have to be like that - the goal of this guide is to help you find the perfect match for your team or project. Toward that goal, this article offers a sampling of questions that are key to evaluating the breadth and depth of a candidate’s mastery of CSS. The following guide gives you some questions for inspiration when preparing an interview for top-notch CSS developers. You should not assess candidates based purely on their ability to “correctly” answer each question. That would be missing the point, because not every top candidate will know all the CSS details, nor does knowing all the details guarantee you the best developer. Instead, use provided questions to see how the candidate thinks about the problem at hand, how they work through provided examples, and how they weigh alternatives and make judgment calls.
Questions and Answers
Q: What is an ‘id’ selector, and what is a ‘class’? Explain their differences.
HTML elements can have either id attribute or class attribute, or even both attributes.
The id selector assigns a unique name to the element it is applied to. For CSS to be valid, there can be only one element with a given name. An id selector is usually used when you want to restrict styling rules to a specific HTML element, or a block of elements. By the CSS specification, id selectors are defined with the # character, followed by the name.
On the other hand, the class attribute assigns a class name to the element, and that name can be used on any number of elements within the document. A class-specific style is used when you want to apply styling rules to more than one of blocks and elements within the document. Similar to id selectors, classes are defined by a period (.) and followed by the class name.
To summarize, an id selector identifies and sets style to only one occurrence of an element, while class can be attached to any number of elements. CSS best practice is to to use classes as much as possible, and to reserve the use of id attributes for specific uses. This will result with smaller style sheet files which are more performant and easier to maintain.
Q: In how many ways can CSS be added to a web page? Discuss advantages and disadvantages of each approach.
There are three ways to include CSS to a web page:
Inline: CSS is applied directly to the HTML elements by use of the style attribute.
Embedded: CSS is added within the head element of the web page by placing the CSS code in a style element.
External style sheets: CSS is placed in an external file and added to a web page by use of a link element.
Inline styles have more disadvantages than advantages. Inline styles are useful for small numbers of style definitions and they have the ability to override other style specifications. The disadvantages are they don’t separate the style from the content, styles can’t be controlled from one place, and it is hard to create more complex styles.
Embedded and external CSS share most of the advantages over the inline styles. It is possible to create classes that will be used by multiple elements in the document, they allow complex styling by using selector and grouping methods, and styling is controlled from only one place.
By using embedded style sheets no extra download is required, while external CSS files offer style control of multiple HTML documents from a single file. Disadvantage of the external CSS file is until the external style sheet file is loaded, the HTML document can not be properly rendered.
Q: Explain what RWD is. Discuss how it can be achieved with CSS.
RWD is an abbreviation for Responsive Web Design, and it is the practice of building web pages to work on any device and every screen size improving user interfaces and user experience across the board; no matter how large or small they are, be it a mobile phone, tablet, laptop or desktop. The benefit of the responsive design is you don’t need to create a different page version for each mentioned device. Responsive web designers use only HTML and CSS to resize, hide, shrink, enlarge, or move the content to make it look best on any given screen. RWD is achieved by using CSS media queries - media queries are simple filters which make the content style change based on the characteristics of the device like the display type, width, height, orientation and even resolution.
Q: Discuss CSS image sprites.
CSS sprites are essentially multiple raster images merged into a single image. The main reason for their usage is to help with performance. The fewer different requests a browser needs to make, the faster the web page will load. Term “sprites” dates from the old times and was first used in video games. The idea was that it is faster to load one image into graphic memory, and then only display parts of that image at a time, than continually load new images. This same principle is used in web today.
In CSS, image sprites are used with a background-image property, and then adjusted by setting the background position and dimensions of the individual classes to display a single portion of the complete image sprite.
Q: Explain what Less, Sass, and Stylus are. Discuss what they offer, and their advantages and disadvantages.
Less, Sass, and Stylus are all CSS preprocessors. CSS preprocessors are an abstraction layer on top of CSS, written in a special syntax compiled back to CSS.
CSS preprocessor offer powerful features on top of the CSS, with variables, extends, and mixins being the most notable. Variables store information that can be reused later, like colors or other commonly used values. Extends help you create “classes” that allow inheritance for the rules. Mixins, you can think of like “function”. There are some other features in comparison with vanilla CSS, like the use of logic statements (conditionals and loops), custom functions, integration with other libraries like Compas, and many more.
When talking about advantages and disadvantages, personal preferences offer great opportunity to discuss with the candidate their own view on the use of CSS preprocessors and reasons why a specific one could be used. Basically, there is no right or wrong answer why which one could be used. To read more about CSS preprocessors, you can read an article Why You Should Stop Using Vanilla CSS.
Q: Explain what CSS vendor prefixes are.
CSS vendor prefixes are extensions to the CSS standards. They are used by browsers to offer experimental and non-standard features. Since the vendor prefixes are not included in the official CSS specification, by adding specific prefixes browsers are preventing future incompatibilities which could arise when the standard is extended.
The CSS vendor prefixes are:
Internet Explorer: -ms-
Q: Explain the CSS box model and the layout components that it consists of. Provide examples.
The CSS box model is a rectangular layout paradigm for HTML elements that consists of the following:
Content - The content of the CSS box, where text and images appear
Padding - A transparent area surrounding the content (such as the amount of space between the border and the content)
Border - A border surrounding the padding (if any) and content
Margin - A transparent area surrounding the border (such as the amount of space between the border and any neighboring elements)
Each of these properties can be specified independently for each side of the element, namely top, bottom, right and left, or they can be combined into multiple sides by specifying fewer parameters. For example:
/* Setting top, right, bottom and left margin */
margin: 50px 10px 100px 25px;
/* Setting the same margin on all four sides: */
/* Grouping together top/bottom margin and right/left margin */
padding: 100px 25px;
Test candidates with CSS examples, or give them tasks to create HTML elements using only CSS
You can test candidates by giving them different CSS examples and asking them to explain what they do. This way you can better assess their way of thinking and knowledge about some CSS specifics. Another approach is to give candidates an image of some fancy button or a progress bar, and ask them to recreate them using only CSS. Some CSS examples you can give out to candidates are listed below.
Q: Explain what elements will match each of the following CSS selectors:
1. span, a
2. span a
3. span > a
4. span + a
5. span ~ a
span, a will select all <span> elements and all <a> elements.
span a will select all <a> elements that are anywhere inside a <span> element
span > a will select all <a> elements where the immediate parent is a <span> element
span + a will select all <a> elements that are placed immediately after a <span> element
span ~ a will select all <a> elements that are anywhere preceded by a <span> element
Q: Explain the meaning of each of the following CSS units:
cm - centimeters
em - elements, relative to the font-size of the element (e.g., 2 em means 2 times the current font size)
in - inches
mm - millimeters
pc - picas - 1 pc = 12 pt = 1/6th of an inch
pt - points - 1 pt = 1/72nd of an inch
px - pixels - 1 px = 1/96th of an inch
Q: In CSS3, how would you select:
1. Every <a> element whose href attribute value begins with https
2. Every <a> element whose href attribute value ends with .pdf
3. Every <a> element whose href attribute value contains the substring css
Select every <a> element whose href attribute value begins with https:
Select every <a> element whose href attribute value ends with .pdf:
Select every <a> element whose href attribute value contains the substring css:
For a top CSS developer, provided questions might come off as a bit basic. However, they cover most of the core CSS concepts, visual design and principles, and they do provide a starting point for evaluating individuals. Being able to discuss CSS principles and concepts in a clear and coherent manner will demonstrate candidate’s communication skills as well as their theoretical and peripheral subject knowledge. Finding true masters of CSS is a challenge. From WordPress developers and mobile app experts to Adobe, Magento, Ajax, and PSD programmers the quest is not easy. We hope you find the questions presented in this post to be a useful foundation in your quest for the elite few among CSS developers. Finding such candidates is well worth the effort, as they will undoubtedly have a significant positive impact on your team’s productivity and results.