Toptal Engineering Blog

The Toptal Engineering Blog is a hub for in-depth development tutorials and new technology announcements created by professional freelance software engineers in the Toptal network.
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Matt Hicks
Why Should I Learn Scala?

The popularity and usage of Scala is rapidly on the rise, as evidenced by the ever-increasing number of open positions for Scala developers.

In this article, Toptal engineer Matt Hicks introduces you to the power and capabilities of the Scala language.

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Ryan J. Peterson
Buggy JavaScript Code: The 10 Most Common Mistakes JavaScript Developers Make

At first blush, JavaScript may seem quite simple. Yet the language is significantly more nuanced, powerful, and complex than one would initially be lead to believe. Many of JavaScript’s subtleties lead to a number of common mistakes – 10 of which we discuss here – that are important to be aware of and avoid in one’s quest to become a master JavaScript developer.

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Ilya Sanosyan
Buggy PHP Code: The 10 Most Common Mistakes PHP Developers Make

PHP makes it relatively easy to build a web-based system, which is much of the reason for its popularity. But its ease of use notwithstanding, PHP has evolved into quite a sophisticated language, with many nuances and subtleties that can bite developers, leading to hours of hair-pulling debugging. This article highlights ten of the more common mistakes that PHP developers need to beware of.

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Pooyan Khosravy
Ember Data: A Comprehensive Tutorial for the ember-data Library

Ember Data is a library for robustly managing model data in Ember.js applications. Ember Data provides a more flexible and streamlined development workflow, minimizing code churn in response to what would otherwise be high impact changes. This thorough guide introduces Ember Data’s key constructs and paradigms, demonstrating the value it can provide to you as a developer.

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Ryan Wilcox
The Many Interpreters and Runtimes of the Ruby Programming Language

Which Ruby implementation is right for your project? While the reference implementation (Ruby MRI) remains the interpreter of choice, an alternate Ruby implementation may be right for your project, depending on your operational goals and constraints.

This article showcases the Ruby interpreter implementations and runtimes available today, discussing the advantages and disadvantages of each.

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Jordan Ambra
5 Golden Rules for Great Web API Design

Web services and their APIs abound. Unfortunately, the vast majority are difficult to use. Reasons range from poor design, to lack of documentation, to volatility, to unresolved bugs, or in some cases, all of the above.

Follow the guidance in this post to help ensure that your web API is clean, well-documented, and easy-to-use. Such APIs are truly rare and are therefore much more likely to be widely adopted and used.

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Gergely Kalman
10 Most Common Web Security Vulnerabilities

For all too many companies, it’s not until after a breach has occurred that security becomes a priority. An effective approach to IT security must, by definition, be proactive and defensive. This post focuses on 10 common and significant web-related IT security pitfalls to be aware of, including recommendations on how they can be avoided.

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Alejandro Hernandez
Polymer.js: The Future of Web Application Development?

A year after Google’s launch of Polymer, Toptal engineer Alejandro Hernandez takes it out for a test drive to see if it’s yet ready for prime time. This post explores the maturity and stability of Polymer.js as a foundation for large-scale application development. The results and conclusions from this analysis are provided, along with an introductory overview of the technology.

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Martin Chikilian
Buggy Python Code: The 10 Most Common Mistakes That Python Developers Make

Python’s simple, easy-to-learn syntax can mislead Python developers – especially those who are newer to the language – into missing some of its subtleties and underestimating the power of the language.

In this article, Toptal’s Martin Chikilian presents a “top 10” list of somewhat subtle, harder-to-catch mistakes that can trip up even the most advanced Python developer.

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Diego Castorina
JavaScript Prototype Chains, Scope Chains, and Performance: What You Need to Know

JavaScript is much more nuanced than most developers initially realize. Even for those with more experience, some of JavaScript’s most salient features continue to be misunderstood and lead to confusion. One such feature, described in this article, is the way that property and variable lookups are performed and the resulting performance ramifications to be aware of.

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Patrick Ryder
Buggy C# Code: The 10 Most Common Mistakes That C# Developers Make

C# is a powerful and flexible language with many mechanisms and paradigms that can greatly improve productivity. Having a limited understanding or appreciation of its capabilities, though, can leave one in the proverbial state of “knowing enough to be dangerous”. This article describes 10 of the most common programming mistakes made, or pitfalls to be avoided, by C# programmers.

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Francisco Sanchez Clariá
Data Encoding: A Guide to UTF-8 for PHP and MySQL

Once you step beyond the comfortable confines of English-only character sets, you quickly find yourself entangled in the wonderfully wacky world of UTF-8.

Indeed, navigating through UTF-8 related issues can be a frustrating and hair-pulling experience. This post provides a concise cookbook for addressing these issues when working with PHP and MySQL in particular, based on practical experience and lessons learned.

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