Teams and Processes20 minute read

Code Optimization: The Optimal Way to Optimize

Optimization sounds ideal. Ironically, the very aspect of our code we are trying to optimize can be sabotaged by this process, taking out innocent bystanders along the way. Is it a perfectionists’ goldmine…or minefield? In this article, Toptal Freelance Software Engineer Kevin Bloch offers a more balanced approach to the art and science of optimization.

Toptalauthors are vetted experts in their fields and write on topics in which they have demonstrated experience. All of our content is peer reviewed and validated by Toptal experts in the same field.

Optimization sounds ideal. Ironically, the very aspect of our code we are trying to optimize can be sabotaged by this process, taking out innocent bystanders along the way. Is it a perfectionists’ goldmine…or minefield? In this article, Toptal Freelance Software Engineer Kevin Bloch offers a more balanced approach to the art and science of optimization.

Toptalauthors are vetted experts in their fields and write on topics in which they have demonstrated experience. All of our content is peer reviewed and validated by Toptal experts in the same field.
Kevin Bloch
Verified Expert in Engineering
8 Years of Experience

Kevin has 20+ years among full-stack, desktop, and indie game development. He lately specializes in PostgreSQL, JavaScript, Perl, and Haxe.



Performance optimization is one of the biggest threats to your code.

You may be thinking, not another one of those people. I understand. Optimization of any kind should clearly be a good thing, judging by its etymology, so naturally, you want to be good at it.

Not just to set yourself apart from the crowd as a better developer. Not just to avoid being “Dan” on The Daily WTF, but because you believe code optimization is the Right Thing to Do™. You take pride in your work.

Computer hardware keeps getting faster, and software easier to make, but whatever simple thing that you Just Want to Be Able to Do, Dammit always takes longer than the last. You shake your head at this phenomenon (incidentally, known as Wirth’s Law) and resolve to buck that trend.

That’s noble of you, but stop.

Just Stop!

You are in gravest danger of thwarting your own goals, no matter how experienced you are at programming.

How so? Let’s back up.

First of all, what is code optimization?

Often, when we define it, we assume that we want code to perform better. We say that code optimization is writing or rewriting code so a program uses the least possible memory or disk space, minimizes its CPU time or network bandwidth, or makes the best use of additional cores.

In practice, we sometimes default to another definition: Writing less code.

But the pre-emptively badass code you are writing with that goal is even more likely to become a thorn in someone’s side. Whose? The next unlucky person who has to comprehend your code, which may even be yourself. And someone smart and capable, like you, can avoid self-sabotage: Keep your ends noble but re-evaluate your means, despite the fact that they seem to be unquestionably intuitive.

Code Golfing: +197%, Performance: -398%, Simplicity: -9999%

So code optimization is a bit of a vague term. That’s before we even consider some of the other ways in which one can optimize code, which we will below.

Let’s start by listening to the advice of the sages as we explore together Jackson’s famous code optimization rules:

  1. Don’t do it.
  2. (For experts only!) Don’t do it yet.

1. Don’t Do It: Channeling Perfectionism

I’m going to start with a rather embarrassingly extreme example from a time when, long ago, I was just getting my feet wet in the wonderful, have-your-cake-and-eat-it-too world of SQL. The problem was, I then stepped on the cake and didn’t want to eat it anymore because it was wet and began to smell like feet.

I was just getting my feet wet in the wonderful, have-your-cake-and-eat-it-too world of SQL. The problem was, I then stepped on the cake…

Wait. Let me back out of this car wreck of a metaphor I just made and explain.

I was doing R&D for an intranet app, which I hoped would one day become a completely integrated management system for the small business where I worked. It would track everything for them, and unlike their then-current system, it would never lose their data, because it would be backed by an RDBMS, not the flaky home-grown flat file thing that other developer had used. I wanted to design everything as smart as possible from the beginning because I had a blank slate. Ideas for this system were exploding like fireworks in my mind, and I started designing table—contacts and their many contextual variations for a CRM, accounting modules, inventory, purchasing, CMS, and project management, which I would soon be dogfooding.

That it all ground to a halt, development- and performance-wise, because of…you guessed it, optimization.

I saw that objects (represented as table rows) could have many different relationships to each other in the real world and that we could benefit from tracking these relationships: We would retain more information and could eventually automate business analysis all over the place. Seeing this as an engineering problem, I did something that seemed like an optimization of the system’s flexibility.

At this point, it’s important to look out for your face, because I will not be held responsible if your palm hurts it. Ready? I created two tables: relationship and one it had a foreign-key reference to, relationship_type. relationship could refer to any two rows anywhere in the whole database, and describe the nature of the relationship between them.

Database tables: employee, company, relationship, relationship_type

Oh, man. I had just optimized that flexibility so damn much.

Too much, in fact. Now I had a new problem: a given relationship_type would naturally not make sense between every given combination of rows. While it might make sense that a person had an employed by relationship to a company, that could never be semantically equivalent to the relationship between, say, two documents.

OK, no problem. We’ll just add two columns to relationship_type, specifying which tables this relationship could be applied to. (Bonus points here if you guess that I thought about normalizing this by moving those two columns to a new table referring to, so that relationships that could semantically apply to more than one pair of tables would not have the table names duplicated. After all, if I needed to change a table name and forgot to update it in all applicable rows, it could create a bug! In retrospect, at least bugs would have provided food for the spiders inhabiting my skull.)

Database tables: relationship_type and applicable_to, and the convoluted data of relationship_type's two columns represented by arrows

Thankfully, I was knocked unconscious in a clue-stick storm before traveling too far down this path. When I woke up, I realized I had managed to, more or less, re-implement the internal foreign-key-related tables of the RDBMS on top of itself. Normally I enjoy moments that end with me making the swaggering proclamation that “I’m so meta,” but this, unfortunately, wasn’t one of them. Forget failing to scale—the horrendous bloat of this design made the back-end of my still-simple app, whose DB was hardly populated with any test data yet, nearly unusable.

Use the foreign keys, Luke!

Let’s back up for a second and take a look at two of the many metrics at play here. One is flexibility, which had been my stated goal. In this case, my optimization, being architectural in nature, wasn’t even premature:

Code Optimization Steps: Architecture is the first part of a program to optimize

(We’ll get to it more in my recently published article, How to Avoid the Curse of Premature Optimization.) Nonetheless, my solution failed spectacularly by being far too flexible. The other metric, scalability, was one I wasn’t even considering yet but managed to destroy at least as spectacularly with collateral damage.

That’s right, “Oh.”

Double facepalm, for when one facepalm doesn't cut it

This was a powerful lesson to me of how optimization can go completely awry. My perfectionism completely imploded: My cleverness had led me to produce one of the most objectively un-clever solutions that I have ever made.

Optimize Your Habits, Not Your Code

As you catch yourself tending to refactor before you even have a working prototype and test suite to evidence its correctness, consider where else you can channel this impulse. Sudoku and Mensa are great, but maybe something that will actually benefit your project directly would be better:

  1. Security
  2. Runtime stability
  3. Clarity and style
  4. Coding efficiency
  5. Test effectiveness
  6. Profiling
  7. Your toolkit/DE
  8. DRY (Don’t Repeat Yourself)

But beware: Optimizing the heck out of any particular one of these will come at the cost of others. At the very least, it comes at the cost of time.

Here’s where it’s easy to see how much of an art there is in crafting code. For any one of the above, I can tell you stories about how too much or too little of it was thought to be the wrong choice. Who is doing the thinking here is also an important part of the context.

For example, regarding DRY: At one job I had, I inherited a codebase that was at least 80% redundant statements, because its author apparently was unaware of how and when to write a function. The other 20% of the code was confusingly self-similar.

I was tasked with adding a few features to it. One such feature would need to be repeated throughout all of the code to be implemented, and any future code would have to be carefully copypasta’d to make use of the new feature.

Obviously, it needed to be refactored just for my own sanity (high value) and for any future developers. But, because I was new to the codebase, I first wrote tests so that I could make sure my refactoring did not introduce any regressions. In fact, they did just that: I caught two bugs along the way that I would not have noticed among all the gobbledygook output the script produced.

In the end, I thought I had done pretty well. After the refactoring, I impressed my boss with having implemented what had been considered a difficult feature with a few simple lines of code; moreover, the code was overall an order of magnitude more performant. But it wasn’t too long after this that the same boss told me I had been too slow, and that the project should already have finished. Translation: Coding efficiency was a higher priority.

Beware: Optimizing the heck out of any particular [aspect] will come at the cost of others. At the very least, it comes at the cost of time.

I still think I took the right course there, even if the code optimization wasn’t appreciated directly by my boss at the time. Without the refactoring and tests, I think it would have taken longer to actually get correct—i.e., focusing on coding speed would have actually thwarted it. (Hey, that’s our theme!)

Contrast this with some work I did on a small side project of mine. In the project, I was trying a new template engine, and wanted to get into good habits from the start, even though trying the new template engine was not the end-goal of the project.

As soon as I noticed that a few blocks I had added were very similar to each other, and furthermore, each block required referring to the same variable three times, the DRY bell went off in my head, and I set out to find the right way to do what I was trying to do with this template engine.

It turned out, after a couple of hours of fruitless debugging, that this was currently not possible with the template engine in the way that I imagined. Not only was there no perfect DRY solution; there wasn’t any DRY solution at all!

Trying to optimize this one value of mine, I completely derailed my coding efficiency and my happiness, because this detour cost my project the progress I could have had that day.

Even then, was I entirely wrong? Sometimes it’s worth a bit of investment, particularly with a new tech context, to get to know best practices earlier instead of later. Less code to rewrite and bad habits to undo, right?

No, I think it was unwise even looking for a way to reduce the repetition in my code—in stark contrast to my attitude in the previous anecdote. The reason is that context is everything: I was exploring a new piece of tech on a small play project, not settling in for the long haul. A few extra lines and repetition would not have hurt anyone, but the loss of focus hurt me and my project.

Wait, so seeking best practices can be a bad habit? Sometimes. If my main goal were learning the new engine, or learning in general, then that would have been time well spent: Tinkering, finding the limits, discovering unrelated features and gotchas via research. But I had forgotten that this was not my main goal, and it cost me.

It’s an art, like I said. And the development of that art benefits from the reminder, Don’t do it. It at least gets you to consider which values are at play as you work, and which ones are most important to you in your context.

What about that second rule? When can we actually optimize?

2. Don’t Do It Yet: Someone Has Already Done This

OK, whether by you or by someone else, you find your architecture has already been set, the data flows have been thought out and documented, and it’s time to code.

Let’s take Don’t do it yet a step even further: Don’t even code it yet.

This itself may smell like premature optimization, but it’s an important exception. Why? To avoid the dreaded NIHS, or “Not Invented Here” Syndrome—assuming that your priorities include code performance and minimizing development time. If not, if your goals are completely learning-oriented, you can skip this next section.

While it’s possible that people reinvent the square wheel out of sheer hubris, I believe that honest, humble folks, like you and I, can make this mistake solely by not knowing all the options available to us. Knowing every option of every API and tool in your stack and keeping on top of them as they grow and evolve is certainly a lot of work.

But, putting in this time is what makes you an expert and keeps you from being the zillionth person on CodeSOD to be cursed and mocked for the trail of devastation left behind by their fascinating take on date-time calculators or string manipulators.

(A good counterpoint to this general pattern is the old Java Calendar API, but it’s since been fixed.)

Check Your Standard Library, Check Your Framework’s Ecosystem, Check for FOSS That Solves Your Problem Already

Chances are, the concepts you’re dealing with have pretty standard and well-known names, so a quick internet search will save you a ton of time.

As an example, I was recently preparing to do some analysis of AI strategies for a board game. I woke up one morning realizing that the analysis I was planning could be done orders of magnitude more efficiently if I simply used a certain combinatorics concept I remembered. Not being interested in figuring out the algorithm for this concept myself at this time, I was already ahead by knowing the right name to search for. However, I found that after about 50 minutes of research and trying some preliminary code out, I had not managed to turn the half-finished pseudo-code I had found into a correct implementation. (Can you believe there’s a blog post out there where the author assumes incorrect algorithm output, implements the algorithm incorrectly to match the assumptions, commenters point this out, and then years later, it’s still not fixed?) At that point, my morning tea kicked in, and I searched for [name of concept] [my programming language]. 30 seconds later, I had provably correct code from GitHub and was moving on to what I had actually wanted to be doing. Just getting specific and including the language, instead of assuming I would have to implement it myself, meant everything.

Time to Design Your Data Structure and Implement Your Algorithm

…again, do not play code golf. Prioritize correctness and clarity in real-world projects.

Time Investment: 10 hours, Execution Time: +25%, Memory Usage: +3%, Confusion: 100%

OK, so you’ve looked, and there is nothing already solving your problem built into your toolchain, or liberally licensed on the web. You roll out your own.

No problem. The advice is simple, in this order:

  1. Design it so that it would be simple to explain to a novice programmer.
  2. Write a test that fits the expectations produced by that design.
  3. Write your code so that a novice programmer could easily glean the design from it.

Simple, but perhaps hard to follow. This is where coding habits and code smells and art and craft and elegance come into play. There is obviously an engineering aspect to what you are doing at this point, but again, do not play code golf. Prioritize correctness and clarity in real-world projects.

If you like videos, here’s one of someone following the above steps, more or less. For the video-averse, I’ll summarize: It’s an algorithm coding test at a Google job interview. The interviewee first designs the algorithm in a way that is easy to communicate. Before writing any code, there are examples of the output expected by a working design. Then the code naturally follows.

As for the tests themselves, I know that in some circles, test-driven development can be contentious. I think part of the reason why is that it can be overdone, pursued religiously to the point of sacrificing development time. (Again, shooting ourselves in the foot by trying to optimize even one variable too much from the start.) Even Kent Beck doesn’t take TDD to such an extreme, and he invented extreme programming and wrote the book on TDD. So start with something simple to make sure your output is correct. After all, you would be doing that manually after coding anyway, right? (My apologies if you’re such a rockstar programmer that you don’t even run your code after first writing it. In that case, maybe you would consider leaving your code’s future maintainers with a test just so you know that they won’t break your awesome implementation.) So instead of doing a manual, visual diff, with a test in place you are already letting the computer do that work for you.

During the rather mechanical process of implementing your algorithms and data structures, avoid making line-by-line optimizations, and don’t even think of using a custom lower-level language extern (Assembly if you’re coding in C, C if you’re coding in Perl, etc.) at this point. The reason is simple: If your algorithm gets replaced entirely—and you won’t find out until later in the process whether that’s needed—then your low-level optimization efforts will have no effect in the end.

An ECMAScript Example

On the excellent community code review site, I recently found an exercise that suggested explicitly to try either optimizing for de-duplication or for clarity. I optimized for deduplication, just to show how ridiculous things can get if you take DRY—an otherwise beneficial coding mindset, as I mentioned above—too far. Here’s what my code looked like:

const zeroPhrase = "No more";
const wallPhrase = " on the wall";
const standardizeNumber = number => {
   if (number === 0) { return zeroPhrase; }
   return '' + number;
const bottlePhrase = number => {
   const possibleS = (number === 1) ? '' : 's';
   return standardizeNumber(number) + " bottle" + possibleS + " of beer";
export default class Beer {
   static verse(number) {
       const nextNumber = (number === 0) ? 99 : (number - 1);
       const thisBottlePhrase = bottlePhrase(number);
       const nextBottlePhrase = bottlePhrase(nextNumber);
       let phrase = thisBottlePhrase + wallPhrase + ", " + thisBottlePhrase.toLowerCase() + ".\n";
       if (number === 0) {
           phrase += "Go to the store and buy some more";
       } else {
           const bottleReference = (number === 1) ? "it" : "one";
           phrase += "Take " + bottleReference + " down and pass it around";
       return phrase + ", " + nextBottlePhrase.toLowerCase() + wallPhrase + ".\n";
   static sing(start = 99, end = 0) {
       return Array.from(Array(start - end + 1).keys()).map(offset => {
           return this.verse(start - offset);

Hardly any duplication of strings there at all! By writing it this way, I’ve manually implemented a form of text compression for the beer song (but only for the beer song). What was the benefit, exactly? Well, let’s say you want to sing about drinking beer out of cans instead of bottles. I could accomplish this by changing one single instance of bottle to can.



Nope, because then all the tests break. OK, that’s easy to fix: we’ll just do a search and replace for bottle in the unit test spec. And that is exactly as easy to do as doing that to the code itself in the first place and carries the same risks of breaking things unintentionally.

Meanwhile, my variables will be strangely named afterward, with things like bottlePhrase not having anything to do with bottles at all. The only way to avoid this is to have foreseen exactly the type of change that would be made and used a more generic term like vessel or container in place of bottle in my variable names.

The wisdom of future-proofing in this way is pretty questionable. What are the odds you’ll want to change anything at all? And if you do, will what you change work out so conveniently? In the bottlePhrase example, what if you want to localize into a language that has more than two plural forms? That’s right, refactor time, and the code may look even worse afterward.

But when your requirements do change, and you’re not just trying to anticipate them, then maybe it is time to refactor. Or maybe you can still put it off: How many vessel types or localizations will you be adding, realistically? Anyway, when you need to balance your deduplication with clarity, it’s well worth watching this demonstration by Katrina Owen.

Back to my own ugly example: Needless to say, the benefits of deduplication aren’t even being realized here all that much. Meanwhile, what did it cost?

Aside from taking longer to write in the first place, it’s now quite a bit less trivial to read, debug, and maintain. Imagine the readability level with a moderate amount of duplication allowed. For example, having each of the four verse variations spelled out.

But We Still Haven’t Optimized!

Now that your algorithm is implemented, and you have proven its output to be correct, congratulations! You have a baseline!

Finally, it’s time to…optimize, right? Nope, still Don’t do it yet. It’s time to take your baseline and do a nice benchmark. Set a threshold for your expectations around this and stick it in your test suite. Then if something suddenly makes this code slower—even if it still works—you’ll know before it goes out the door.

Still hold off on optimization, until you have a whole piece of the relevant user experience implemented. Until that point, you may be targeting an entirely different part of the code than you need to.

Go finish your app (or component), if you haven’t already, setting all your algorithmic benchmark baselines as you go.

Once this is done, this is a great time to create and benchmark end-to-end tests covering the most common real-world usage scenarios of your system.

Maybe you’ll find that everything is fine.

Or maybe you’ve determined that, in its real-life context, something is too slow or takes too much memory.

OK, Now You Can Optimize

There’s only one way to be objective about it. It’s time to break out flame graphs and other profiling tools. Experienced engineers may or may not guess better more often than novices, but that’s not the point: The only way to know for sure is to profile. This is always the first thing to do in the process of optimizing code for performance.

You can profile during a given end-to-end test to get at what will really make the largest impact. (And later, after deploying, monitoring usage patterns is a great way to stay on top of which aspects of your system are the most relevant to measure in the future.)

Note that you are not trying to use the profiler right to its full depth—you’re looking more for function-level profiling than statement-level profiling, generally, because your goal at this point is only to find out which algorithm is the bottleneck.

Now that you’ve used profiling to identify your system’s bottleneck, now you can actually attempt to optimize, confident that your optimization is worth doing. You can also prove how effective (or ineffective) your attempt was, thanks to those baseline benchmarks you did along the way.

Overall Techniques

First, remember to stay high-level as long as possible:

At the whole-algorithm level, one technique is strength reduction. In the case of reducing loops to formulas, though, be mindful of leaving comments. Not everybody knows or remembers every combinatorics formula. Also, be careful with your use of math: Sometimes what you think might be strength reduction is not, in the end. For example, let’s suppose that x * (y + z) has some clear algorithmic meaning. If your brain has been trained at some point, for whatever reason, to automatically un-group like terms, you might be tempted to rewrite that as x * y + x * z. For one thing, this puts a barrier between the reader and the clear algorithmic meaning that had been there. (Worse yet, it’s now actually less efficient because of the extra multiplication operation required. It’s like loop unrolling just caked its pants.) In any case, a quick note about your intentions would go a long way, and might even help you see your own error before you commit it.

Whether you’re using a formula or just replacing a loop-based algorithm with another loop-based algorithm, you’re ready to measure the difference.

But maybe you can get better performance simply by changing your data structure. Educate yourself on the performance difference among the various operations you need to do on the structure you’re using, and on any alternatives. Maybe a hash looks a bit messier to work within your context, but is the superior search time worth it over an array? These are the types of trade-offs it’s up to you to decide about.

You may notice that this boils down to knowing which algorithms are being executed on your behalf when you call a convenience function. So it’s really the same thing as strength reduction, in the end. And knowing what your vendor’s libraries are doing behind the scenes is crucial not just for performance but also for avoiding unintentional bugs.


OK, your system’s functionality is done, but from a UX point of view, performance could be fine-tuned a bit further. Assuming you’ve done all you can higher up, it’s time to consider the optimizations we’ve been avoiding the entire time up until now. Consider, because this level of optimization is still a trade-off against clarity and maintainability. But you’ve decided it’s time, so go ahead with statement-level profiling, now that you’re within the context of the whole system, where it actually matters.

Just like with the libraries you use, countless engineering hours have been put in for your benefit at the level of your compiler or interpreter. (After all, compiler optimization and code generation are huge topics all their own). This is even true at the processor level. Trying to optimize code without being aware of what’s happening on the lowest levels is like thinking that having four-wheel drive implies that your vehicle can also stop more easily.

It’s hard to give good generic advice beyond that because it really depends on your tech stack and what your profiler is pointing at. But, because you are measuring, you’re already in an excellent position to ask for help, if solutions don’t organically and intuitively present themselves to you from the problem context. (Sleep and time spent thinking about something else can also help.)

At this point, depending on the context and scaling requirements, Jeff Atwood would probably suggest simply adding hardware, which can be cheaper than developer time.

Maybe you don’t go that route. In that case, it may help to explore various categories of code optimization techniques:

More specifically:

In any case, I do have some more Don’ts for you:

Don’t reuse a variable for multiple distinct purposes. In terms of maintainability, this is like running a car without oil. Only in the most extreme embedded situations did this ever make sense, and even in those cases, I would argue that it no longer does. This is the job of the compiler to organize. Do it yourself, then move one line of code, and you’ve introduced a bug. Is the illusion of saving memory worth that to you?

Don’t use macros and inline functions without knowing why. Yes, function call overhead is a cost. But avoiding it often makes your code harder to debug, and sometimes actually makes it slower. Using this technique everywhere just because it’s a good idea once in a while is an example of a golden hammer.

Don’t hand-unroll loops. Again, this form of loop optimization is something almost always better optimized by an automated process like compilation, not by sacrificing your code’s readability.

The irony in the last two code optimization examples is that they can actually be anti-performant. Of course, since you’re doing benchmarks, you can prove or disprove that for your particular code. But even if you see a performance improvement, return to the art side, and see whether the gain is worth the loss in readability and maintainability.

It’s Yours: Optimally Optimized Optimization

Attempting performance optimization can be beneficial. More often than not, though, it is done very prematurely, carries with it a litany of bad side-effects, and most ironically, leads to worse performance. I hope you have come away with an expanded appreciation for the art and science of optimization and, most importantly, its proper context.

I’m happy if this helps us to cast off the notion of writing perfect code from the start and to write correct code instead. We must remember to optimize from the top down, prove where the bottlenecks lie, and measure before and after fixing them. That’s the optimal, optimum strategy to optimize optimization. Best of luck.

Understanding the basics

  • What is meant by software optimization?

    Software optimization can refer to many aspects of a piece of software, such as flexibility, maintainability, or performance. However, performance is usually implied.

  • What is performance optimization?

    Even performance optimization can refer to many different aspects of code. Sometimes aspects can even be inherently at odds with one another, like size on disk vs CPU time. Minimizing running time is the most common goal.

  • What is loop optimization?

    Loop optimization is transforming a loop in a way that improves performance without changing the output. Because many transformations come at the cost of maintainability and readability, often this is best left to a compiler.

  • What's typically at risk when we prematurely optimize for performance?

    Correctness, clarity, maintainability, flexibility, and, ironically, even the specific aspect being optimized (memory usage, response time, etc.). More irony: Optimizing from the start doesn’t save any time in the end when the code being optimized is replaced by a built-in or third-party function.

  • What are the code optimization steps taken before writing code?

    Optimize architecture first, and then (if you’ll even implement them yourself) algorithms and data structures.

  • What are the code optimization steps used on pre-existing code, which even experts need to follow?

    First, profile. Even experts often falsely identify what needs optimizing. After that, the proper steps are basic science: Take carefully considered benchmarks before and after making a change. Without correct context and measurement, optimization is a shot in the dark… in a room full of good friends!

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Kevin Bloch

Kevin Bloch

Verified Expert in Engineering
8 Years of Experience

Bergerac, France

Member since January 31, 2017

About the author

Kevin has 20+ years among full-stack, desktop, and indie game development. He lately specializes in PostgreSQL, JavaScript, Perl, and Haxe.

authors are vetted experts in their fields and write on topics in which they have demonstrated experience. All of our content is peer reviewed and validated by Toptal experts in the same field.


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