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It is number of edges in a shortest path between Vertex U and Vertex V. If there are multiple paths connecting two vertices, then the shortest path is considered as the distance between the two vertices.

**Notation** − d(U,V)

There can be any number of paths present from one vertex to other. Among those, you need to choose only the shortest one.

Take a look at the following graph −

Here, the distance from vertex 'd' to vertex 'e' or simply 'de' is 1 as there is one edge between them. There are many paths from vertex 'd' to vertex 'e' −

- da, ab, be
- df, fg, ge
- de (It is considered for distance between the vertices)
- df, fc, ca, ab, be
- da, ac, cf, fg, ge

The maximum distance between a vertex to all other vertices is considered as the eccentricity of vertex.

**Notation** − e(V)

The distance from a particular vertex to all other vertices in the graph is taken and among those distances, the eccentricity is the highest of distances.

In the above graph, the eccentricity of 'a' is 3.

The distance from 'a' to 'b' is 1 ('ab'),

from 'a' to 'c' is 1 ('ac'),

from 'a' to 'd' is 1 ('ad'),

from 'a' to 'e' is 2 ('ab'-'be') or ('ad'-'de'),

from 'a' to 'f' is 2 ('ac'-'cf') or ('ad'-'df'),

from 'a' to 'g' is 3 ('ac'-'cf'-'fg') or ('ad'-'df'-'fg').

So the eccentricity is 3, which is a maximum from vertex 'a' from the distance between 'ag' which is maximum.

In other words,

e(b) = 3

e(c) = 3

e(d) = 2

e(e) = 3

e(f) = 3

e(g) = 3

The minimum eccentricity from all the vertices is considered as the radius of the Graph G. The minimum among all the maximum distances between a vertex to all other vertices is considered as the radius of the Graph G.

**Notation** − r(G)

From all the eccentricities of the vertices in a graph, the radius of the connected graph is the minimum of all those eccentricities.

**Example** − In the above graph r(G) = 2, which is the minimum eccentricity for 'd'.

The maximum eccentricity from all the vertices is considered as the diameter of the Graph G. The maximum among all the distances between a vertex to all other vertices is considered as the diameter of the Graph G.

**Notation** − d(G)

From all the eccentricities of the vertices in a graph, the diameter of the connected graph is the maximum of all those eccentricities.

**Example** − In the above graph, d(G) = 3; which is the maximum eccentricity.

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